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These all develop through an embryo that is enclosed within a membrane called an amnion.
The amnion surrounds the embryo with a watery substance, and is probably an adaptation for breeding on land.
The term can also be applied to larger groups of organisms, as in "the adaptive radiation of mammals." adaptive strategies: A mode of coping with competition or environmental conditions on an evolutionary time scale.
Species adapt when succeeding generations emphasize beneficial characteristics.
The pupil of a human eye is a self-adjusting aperture. archetype: The original form or body plan from which a group of organisms develops.
analogous structures: Structures in different species that look alike or perform similar functions (e.g., the wings of butterflies and the wings of birds) that have evolved convergently but do not develop from similar groups of embryological tissues, and that have not evolved from similar structures known to be shared by common ancestors. Note: The recent discovery of deep genetic homologies has brought new interest, new information, and discussion to the classical concepts of analogous and homologous structures.
anatomy: (1) The structure of an organism or one of its parts. ancestral homology: Homology that evolved before the common ancestor of a set of species, and which is present in other species outside that set of species. anthropoid: A member of the group of primates made up of monkeys, apes, and humans.
amino acid sequence: A series of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, usually coded for by DNA.
Exceptions are those coded for by the RNA of certain viruses, such as HIV.
In a diploid cell there are usually two alleles of any one gene (one from each parent).