Carbon dating of the kaaba
3 I looked up and saw a ram standing beside the river. Both horns were long, but one was longer than the other, and the longer one came up second.
4 I saw the ram charging westward and northward and southward.
The most prominent of these is the theory that Dhul-Qarnayn was Cyrus the Great, the founder of the Persian Empire.
This theory was first proposed by Indian scholar Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and was later endorsed by many Sunni and Shia scholars and commentators including Israr Ahmed, Maududi, Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, Allameh Tabatabaei (in Tafsir al-Mizan), that the identification of Dhul-Qarnain has been a controversial topic among Islamic scholars from the earliest times.
Generally, commentators have been of the opinion that Dhul-Qarnayn is actually Alexander the Great.
Cyrus the Great in the Quran is a theory that holds that the character of Dhul-Qarnayn, mentioned in the Quran, should be identified with Cyrus the Great, or at least he is a better fit than the other proposed figures.
The fact that the Alexander-as-Dhul-Qarnain theory actually refers to the semi-mythical Alexander described in the Alexander Romance makes the connection even more problematic for some Islamic scholars.