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The opinion states: First, consider the facts as the legislature saw them when it adopted the District statute.As stated by the local council committee that recommended its adoption, the major substantive goal of the District’s handgun restriction is “to reduce the potentiality for gun-related crimes and gun-related deaths from occurring within the District of Columbia.” * A 1994 survey conducted by the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that Americans use guns to frighten away intruders who are breaking into their homes about 498,000 times per year. * According to the CDC, there were about 18,498 gun-related accidents that resulted in death or an emergency room visit during 2001 (the earliest year such data is available from the CDC). handgun ban was unconstitutional, because it violated the Second Amendment “individual right to keep and bear arms” (more details below). Regarding this decision: * In May 2009, President Obama announced Sonya Sotomayor as his first nominee to the Supreme Court. She was confirmed in a 68–31 Senate vote, with 100% of Democrats voting for her confirmation and 79% of Republicans voting against it. * In May 2010, Obama announced his second nominee to the Supreme Court, Elena Kagan. As a law clerk for Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, Kagan wrote a memo recommending Marshall deny hearing an appeal from a man who was convicted of violating Washington, D. She wrote in the memo: * Gun control proponents have argued and some federal courts have ruled that the Second Amendment does not apply to individual citizens of the United States but only to members of militias, which, they assert, are now the state National Guard units.  In 2002, a federal appeals court panel ruled that “the people” only “have the right to bear arms in the service of the state.” * Gun rights proponents have argued and some federal courts have ruled that the Second Amendment recognizes “an individual right to keep and bear arms.” In 2001, a federal appeals court panel ruled that the Second Amendment “protects the right of individuals, including those not then actually a member of any militia or engaged in active military service or training, to privately possess and bear their own firearms….” * James Madison was the primary author of the Bill of Rights, is known as the “Father of the Constitution” for his central role in its formation, and was one of three authors of the Federalist Papers, a group of essays published in newspapers and books to explain and lobby for ratification of the Constitution.  * In Federalist Paper 46, James Madison addressed the concern that a standing federal army might conduct a coup to take over the nation.When the Supreme Court overturned the District of Columbia’s handgun ban in June 2008, at least four of these suburbs repealed their bans. * In June 2010, the U. Supreme Court ruled (5 to 4) that Chicago’s ban was unconstitutional. Thereafter, Chicago adopted gun ordinances that required licensees to have firearm range training but prohibited firing ranges within the city. After an unfavorable federal court ruling, Chicago revised its regulations to permit firing ranges within the city, subject to “comprehensive” regulations. As of January 2016, there were no firing ranges within the city limits. * In July 2013, Illinois passed a law that permits concealed carrying of handguns, making it the last state in the U. to allow concealed carry. By the end of 2014, nearly 91,700 concealed carry permits had been issued in the state, and 26% of these permits were issued in Cook County, which includes Chicago. * In 2011, the Chicago Police Department made an “internal policy decision to discontinue” its murder analysis reports that provided data on total firearm and handgun murders.The Chicago Police Department expects to begin publishing these reports again in 2017. someone convicted of or under indictment for a felony punishable by more than one year in prison, someone convicted of a misdemeanor punishable by more than two years in prison, a fugitive from justice, an unlawful user of any controlled substance, someone who has been ruled as mentally defective or has been committed to any mental institution, an illegal alien, someone dishonorably discharged from the military, someone who has renounced his or her U. citizenship, someone subject to certain restraining orders, or someone convicted of a domestic violence misdemeanor.    * Under federal law, private individuals are not required to a conduct a background check before selling or transferring a firearm to someone who lives in the same state, but it is illegal and punishable by up to 10 years in prison for a private individual to sell or transfer a firearm while “knowing” or having “reasonable cause to believe” that the recipient falls into one of the prohibited categories above.  * From the inception of the federal background check system in 1998 to 2014, about 202.5 million background checks for gun purchases were processed through the FBI’s background check system.Particularly, when statistics are involved, the determination of what constitutes a credible fact (and what does not) can contain elements of personal subjectivity.It is our mission to minimize subjective information and to provide highly factual content.This excludes all “military service, police work, or work as a security guard.” * A 1994 survey conducted by the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that Americans use guns to frighten away intruders who are breaking into their homes about 498,000 times per year. * Click here to see why the following commonly cited statistic does not meet Just Facts’ Standards of Credibility: “In homes with guns, the homicide of a household member is almost 3 times more likely to occur than in homes without guns.” * A 1997 survey of more than 18,000 prison inmates found that among those serving time for a violent crime, “30% of State offenders and 35% of Federal offenders carried a firearm when committing the crime.” * A 2013 study of more than 18,000 prison inmates found that in 2004, about “16% of state prison inmates and 18% of federal inmates” reported having a firearm during the commission of the crime for which they were incarcerated. * Nationwide in 2014, law enforcement agencies reported that 56% of aggravated assaults, 30% of robberies, 39% of rapes, and 65% of murders that were reported to police resulted in an alleged offender being identified and acted upon by the criminal justice system.  * For every 15 aggravated assaults, robberies, sexual assaults, rapes, and murders committed in the United States in 2006, approximately one person was sentenced to prison for committing such a crime.   * In 1976, the Washington, D. City Council passed a law generally prohibiting residents from possessing handguns and requiring that all firearms in private homes be (1) kept unloaded and (2) rendered temporally inoperable via disassembly or installation of a trigger lock. 24, 1976.  * In 1920, Britain passed a law requiring civilians to obtain a certificate from their district police chief in order to purchase or possess any firearm except a shotgun.To obtain this certificate, the applicant had to pay a fee, and the chief of police had to be “satisfied” that the applicant had “good reason for requiring such a certificate” and did not pose a “danger to the public safety or to the peace.” The certificate had to specify the types and quantities of firearms and ammunition that the applicant could purchase and keep. * In 1968, Britain made the 1920 law stricter by requiring civilians to obtain a certificate from their district police chief in order to purchase or possess a shotgun.
* A semi-automatic firearm fires one bullet each time the trigger is pulled, ejects the shell of the fired bullet, and automatically loads another bullet for the next pull of the trigger.Besides the advantage of being armed, which the Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation, the existence of subordinate governments, to which the people are attached, and by which the militia officers are appointed, forms a barrier against the enterprises of ambition, more insurmountable than any which a simple government of any form can admit of.Notwithstanding the military establishments in the several kingdoms of Europe, which are carried as far as the public resources will bear, the governments are afraid to trust the people with arms. * In 1976, the Washington, D. City Council passed a law generally prohibiting residents from possessing handguns and requiring that all firearms in private homes be (1) kept unloaded and (2) rendered temporally inoperable via disassembly or installation of a trigger lock.  The District’s total ban on handgun possession in the home amounts to a prohibition on an entire class of “arms” that Americans overwhelmingly choose for the lawful purpose of self-defense.Some, such as Connecticut, effectively act as shall-issue states, while others, such as New Jersey, effectively act as no-issue states. * Under a court order that required Illinois to allow public possession of firearms, the state passed a law in 2013 that permits concealed carrying of handguns.
Before this, Illinois was the only state that did not have a may-issue or shall-issue concealed carry law.  † Rhode Island is considered a “hybrid” state, because the law states that local authorities “shall issue …Of these, approximately 1.2 million or 0.6% were denied. * States may prosecute cases that the federal government does not.