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The Roman Empire invaded the region in 63 BCE, first taking control of Syria, and then intervening in the Hasmonean Civil War.The struggle between pro-Roman and pro-Parthian factions in Judea eventually led to the installation of Herod the Great and consolidation of the Herodian kingdom as a vassal Judean state of Rome.In 634–641 CE, the region, including Jerusalem, was conquered by the Arabs who had just recently adopted Islam.Control of the region transferred between the Rashidun Caliphs, Umayyads, Abbasids, Fatimids, Seljuks, Crusaders, and Ayyubids throughout the next three centuries.The area is also known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the Bahá'í Faith.From 1920, the whole region was known as Palestine (under British Mandate) Other notable Paleolithic sites include caves Tabun, Qesem and Manot.Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus".The earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt (dated to the late 13th century BCE).
In the 7th century Palestine was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187.
The Israelites and their culture, according to the modern archaeological account, did not overtake the region by force, but instead branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatristic—and later monotheistic—religion centered on Yahweh.
In 586 BCE, King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon conquered Judah.
The region came to be populated predominantly by Greco-Romans on the coast and Samaritans in the hill-country.
Christianity was gradually evolving over Roman paganism, when the area stood under Byzantine rule.At this time, a full thousand years after the fall of the Jewish state, there were Jewish communities all over the country.